Čís. položky 82


Jacob Jordaens


(Antwerp 1593–1678)
Prometheus Bound,
oil on paper laid down on canvas, 44 x 38 cm, framed

Provenance:
sale, Galerie Georges Giroux, Brussels, 10 May 1926, lot 52, illustrated;
Collection of Fernand Fiévez, Brussels;
with Galerie Jacobs, Brussels, 1955;
Collection of Robert Despiegelaare (1906–1980), Ghent;
thence by descent to the present owner

Exhibited:
Copenhagen, Carlsberg Glytotek, Udstillingen af Belgisk Kunst fra XV.-XX. Aarhundrede [Exhibition of Belgian Art from the XVth – XXth centuries], 26 April – 25 May 1931, cat. no. 12;
Cologne, Walraff Richartz Museum, permanent exhibition, on loan between December 1965 – June 1968;
Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, Jacob Jordaens 1593–1678, 29 November 1968 – 5 January 1969, cat. no. 82;
Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Jordaens in Belgisch bezit, 24 June – 24 September 1978, cat. no. 19

Literature:
s. a., Copenhagen, Ny Glyptothek, Udstilling af Belgisk Kunst [Exhibition of Belgian Art], exhibition catalogue, 1931, no. 12;
J. S. Held, Prometheus Bound, in: Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. LIX, Philadelphia 1963, p. 31, fig. 18;
A. M. Kesting, Zweimal der gefesselte Prometheus im Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, in: Museen in Köln, Bulletin, February 1966, 5. Jahrgang, Helft 2, pp. 446–448, illustrated p. 446;
H. Vey, A. Kesting (eds.), Katalog der niederländischen Gemälde von 1550–1800 im Wallraf-Richartz-Museum und im öffentlichen Besitz der Stadt Köln. Mit Ausnahme des Kölnischen Stadtmuseum, collection catalogue, Cologne 1967, p. 60, mentioned under no. 1044;
M. Jaffé, Jacques Jordaens 1593–1678, exhibition catalogue, Ottawa 1968, p. 120, no. 82, illustrated p. 298;
J. Clair, Jacob Jordaens: des dieux, des betes et des hommes, in: L’Oeil, no. 169, January 1969, p 18;
M. Vandenven, Jordaens in Belgisch bezit, exhibition catalogue, Antwerp, 1978, pp. 56–57, no. 19, illustrated;
R.-A. d’Hulst, Jacob Jordaens, Stuttgart 1982, p. 176, mentioned under no. 149, note 60;
H. Devisscher, N. de Poorter (eds.), Jacob Jordaens (1593–1678). Schilderijen en Wandtapijten, exhibition catalogue, Antwerp 1993, p. 187, mentioned under no. A 57, note 17

We are grateful to Joost Vander Auwera for confirming the attribution after examining the present sketch in the original and for his assistance in cataloguing this lot.

The present preparatory sketch depicts the torturous punishment of the Greek mythological god Prometheus. As one of the Titans, the narrative of this pre-Olympian god has many versions. In general, it is recounted that Prometheus was the creator of the humans, whom he modelled in clay and brought to life with fire. Bravely siding with his own creation over the Titans, Prometheus helped the humans several times by cleverly deceiving the tyranny of the latter. Stealing fire from the Titans and giving it to the humans was the god’s most notorious act. Although Supreme god Zeus was furious for many of Prometheus’ deeds, it was mainly this act that led to Prometheus’ cruel punishment. Chained for eternity on a high rock in the Caucasus Mountains, the god was visited daily by an eagle, which feasted on the god’s liver, which then grew back at night.

In the present work, the artist depicts Prometheus with his head down, mouth wide open and groaning in pain. He seems to tense every muscle in his almost foreshortened body, while the eagle lands partly on a rock and partly on the god’s lower abdomen. Jordaens captured this challenging pose in lively brushwork. As with many of the artist’s compositions, this sketch draws inspiration from a work by Peter Paul Rubens, who completed his Prometheus around 1618. This monumental work is conserved in the Philadelphia Museum of Art (inv. no. W1950-3-1). As in many of his works, Rubens collaborated with his neighbouring artist and friend Frans Snyders, who painted the intimidating eagle in the Philadelphia painting. The two created an impressive work dominated by a strong diagonal. Rubens in his turn must have been familiar with Titian’s Tityus, conserved in the Museo del Prado, Madrid (inv. no. P000427). This work was formerly owned by the Spanish monarchs whose collection Rubens studied during his stay around 1603. Whether or not Rubens studied Titian’s work in the flesh, his Prometheus is more closely related to an engraving of Titans’ work in reverse by Cornelis Cort, of which a print is conserved in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv. no. RP-P-BI-6378).

The present sketch serves as a preparatory work for Jordaens’ impressive composition, which the artist completed in around 1640 and is today conserved in the Wallraf-Richartz Museum in Cologne (inv. no. 1044). In this final work, Jordaens’ depiction of the eagle shows striking similarities with that of Snyders and seems almost directly derived from it. For the remaining composition, Jordaens created his own interpretation. Placing Prometheus upside down, instead of paralleling the god’s body with the spread wings of the eagle, Jordaens eliminates the strong diagonal composition of Rubens. The artist introduced another god, Mercury and placed him in line with Prometheus’ right leg, creating a counterbalanced diagonal and forming an X-shaped orientation. Aside from the torch of fire, Prometheus’ main symbol, the artist incorporated additional iconographical elements related to other episodes from the tale of Prometheus. A clay model of a bust, symbolising the creation of the humans and the bag of bones that Prometheus used to mislead Zeus. A notable addition is the aforementioned figure of Mercury, possibly referring to the episode where Prometheus reveals to Mercury how Zeus can be protected against his downfall. The supreme god had to disobey his love for Thetis, as she would bear a son who would defeat his father. According to some versions, revealing this secret is what ensured Prometheus’ freedom.

In the present work Jordaens allowed himself to focus solely on Prometheus’ pose, exploring his own interpretation of the subject and making the sketch a remarkable document providing insight into the artist’s creative process. It goes without saying that, apart from the eagle, virtually all the attributes and elements in the final Cologne painting are excluded in the work under discussion. Art historian Nora de Poorter has suggested the eagle in the present work might have been painted by another hand (see literature), considering the preparatory nature of the work, this seems unlikely and has not been confirmed by Joost Vander Auwera. The latter adds that the strips of paper along the top, right and bottom of the work are typical for Jordaens’ sketches, as seen in other works listed by Roger-Adolf d’Hulst (see, R.-A. d’Hulst, Jordaens drawings, Brussels, 1974, vol. I, II, III and IV). In this publication the numbers A58, A59, A65, A70, A73–A75 and A80 are composed of multiple strips of paper, amongst others. What is rather remarkable is that the artist reused written paper for the present composition. This can be clearly seen along the lower right where the inscriptions are visible to the naked eye. Reusing expensive materials such as canvasses and paper was general practice and certainly not uncommon for Jordaens.

Expert: Damian Brenninkmeyer Damian Brenninkmeyer
+43 1 515 60 403

oldmasters@dorotheum.com

24.04.2024 - 18:00

Dosažená cena: **
EUR 117.000,-
Odhadní cena:
EUR 90.000,- do EUR 120.000,-

Jacob Jordaens


(Antwerp 1593–1678)
Prometheus Bound,
oil on paper laid down on canvas, 44 x 38 cm, framed

Provenance:
sale, Galerie Georges Giroux, Brussels, 10 May 1926, lot 52, illustrated;
Collection of Fernand Fiévez, Brussels;
with Galerie Jacobs, Brussels, 1955;
Collection of Robert Despiegelaare (1906–1980), Ghent;
thence by descent to the present owner

Exhibited:
Copenhagen, Carlsberg Glytotek, Udstillingen af Belgisk Kunst fra XV.-XX. Aarhundrede [Exhibition of Belgian Art from the XVth – XXth centuries], 26 April – 25 May 1931, cat. no. 12;
Cologne, Walraff Richartz Museum, permanent exhibition, on loan between December 1965 – June 1968;
Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, Jacob Jordaens 1593–1678, 29 November 1968 – 5 January 1969, cat. no. 82;
Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Jordaens in Belgisch bezit, 24 June – 24 September 1978, cat. no. 19

Literature:
s. a., Copenhagen, Ny Glyptothek, Udstilling af Belgisk Kunst [Exhibition of Belgian Art], exhibition catalogue, 1931, no. 12;
J. S. Held, Prometheus Bound, in: Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. LIX, Philadelphia 1963, p. 31, fig. 18;
A. M. Kesting, Zweimal der gefesselte Prometheus im Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, in: Museen in Köln, Bulletin, February 1966, 5. Jahrgang, Helft 2, pp. 446–448, illustrated p. 446;
H. Vey, A. Kesting (eds.), Katalog der niederländischen Gemälde von 1550–1800 im Wallraf-Richartz-Museum und im öffentlichen Besitz der Stadt Köln. Mit Ausnahme des Kölnischen Stadtmuseum, collection catalogue, Cologne 1967, p. 60, mentioned under no. 1044;
M. Jaffé, Jacques Jordaens 1593–1678, exhibition catalogue, Ottawa 1968, p. 120, no. 82, illustrated p. 298;
J. Clair, Jacob Jordaens: des dieux, des betes et des hommes, in: L’Oeil, no. 169, January 1969, p 18;
M. Vandenven, Jordaens in Belgisch bezit, exhibition catalogue, Antwerp, 1978, pp. 56–57, no. 19, illustrated;
R.-A. d’Hulst, Jacob Jordaens, Stuttgart 1982, p. 176, mentioned under no. 149, note 60;
H. Devisscher, N. de Poorter (eds.), Jacob Jordaens (1593–1678). Schilderijen en Wandtapijten, exhibition catalogue, Antwerp 1993, p. 187, mentioned under no. A 57, note 17

We are grateful to Joost Vander Auwera for confirming the attribution after examining the present sketch in the original and for his assistance in cataloguing this lot.

The present preparatory sketch depicts the torturous punishment of the Greek mythological god Prometheus. As one of the Titans, the narrative of this pre-Olympian god has many versions. In general, it is recounted that Prometheus was the creator of the humans, whom he modelled in clay and brought to life with fire. Bravely siding with his own creation over the Titans, Prometheus helped the humans several times by cleverly deceiving the tyranny of the latter. Stealing fire from the Titans and giving it to the humans was the god’s most notorious act. Although Supreme god Zeus was furious for many of Prometheus’ deeds, it was mainly this act that led to Prometheus’ cruel punishment. Chained for eternity on a high rock in the Caucasus Mountains, the god was visited daily by an eagle, which feasted on the god’s liver, which then grew back at night.

In the present work, the artist depicts Prometheus with his head down, mouth wide open and groaning in pain. He seems to tense every muscle in his almost foreshortened body, while the eagle lands partly on a rock and partly on the god’s lower abdomen. Jordaens captured this challenging pose in lively brushwork. As with many of the artist’s compositions, this sketch draws inspiration from a work by Peter Paul Rubens, who completed his Prometheus around 1618. This monumental work is conserved in the Philadelphia Museum of Art (inv. no. W1950-3-1). As in many of his works, Rubens collaborated with his neighbouring artist and friend Frans Snyders, who painted the intimidating eagle in the Philadelphia painting. The two created an impressive work dominated by a strong diagonal. Rubens in his turn must have been familiar with Titian’s Tityus, conserved in the Museo del Prado, Madrid (inv. no. P000427). This work was formerly owned by the Spanish monarchs whose collection Rubens studied during his stay around 1603. Whether or not Rubens studied Titian’s work in the flesh, his Prometheus is more closely related to an engraving of Titans’ work in reverse by Cornelis Cort, of which a print is conserved in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv. no. RP-P-BI-6378).

The present sketch serves as a preparatory work for Jordaens’ impressive composition, which the artist completed in around 1640 and is today conserved in the Wallraf-Richartz Museum in Cologne (inv. no. 1044). In this final work, Jordaens’ depiction of the eagle shows striking similarities with that of Snyders and seems almost directly derived from it. For the remaining composition, Jordaens created his own interpretation. Placing Prometheus upside down, instead of paralleling the god’s body with the spread wings of the eagle, Jordaens eliminates the strong diagonal composition of Rubens. The artist introduced another god, Mercury and placed him in line with Prometheus’ right leg, creating a counterbalanced diagonal and forming an X-shaped orientation. Aside from the torch of fire, Prometheus’ main symbol, the artist incorporated additional iconographical elements related to other episodes from the tale of Prometheus. A clay model of a bust, symbolising the creation of the humans and the bag of bones that Prometheus used to mislead Zeus. A notable addition is the aforementioned figure of Mercury, possibly referring to the episode where Prometheus reveals to Mercury how Zeus can be protected against his downfall. The supreme god had to disobey his love for Thetis, as she would bear a son who would defeat his father. According to some versions, revealing this secret is what ensured Prometheus’ freedom.

In the present work Jordaens allowed himself to focus solely on Prometheus’ pose, exploring his own interpretation of the subject and making the sketch a remarkable document providing insight into the artist’s creative process. It goes without saying that, apart from the eagle, virtually all the attributes and elements in the final Cologne painting are excluded in the work under discussion. Art historian Nora de Poorter has suggested the eagle in the present work might have been painted by another hand (see literature), considering the preparatory nature of the work, this seems unlikely and has not been confirmed by Joost Vander Auwera. The latter adds that the strips of paper along the top, right and bottom of the work are typical for Jordaens’ sketches, as seen in other works listed by Roger-Adolf d’Hulst (see, R.-A. d’Hulst, Jordaens drawings, Brussels, 1974, vol. I, II, III and IV). In this publication the numbers A58, A59, A65, A70, A73–A75 and A80 are composed of multiple strips of paper, amongst others. What is rather remarkable is that the artist reused written paper for the present composition. This can be clearly seen along the lower right where the inscriptions are visible to the naked eye. Reusing expensive materials such as canvasses and paper was general practice and certainly not uncommon for Jordaens.

Expert: Damian Brenninkmeyer Damian Brenninkmeyer
+43 1 515 60 403

oldmasters@dorotheum.com


Horká linka kupujících Po-Pá: 10.00 - 17.00
old.masters@dorotheum.at

+43 1 515 60 403
Aukce: Obrazy starých mistrů
Typ aukce: Sálová aukce s Live bidding
Datum: 24.04.2024 - 18:00
Místo konání aukce: Wien | Palais Dorotheum
Prohlídka: 13.04. - 24.04.2024


** Kupní cena vč. poplatku kupujícího a DPH

Není již možné podávat příkazy ke koupi přes internet. Aukce se právě připravuje resp. byla již uskutečněna.